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AEAS 7 FY21 Q2 How to be an Upstander: Learn about Physical, Mental, and Systemic Violence


Learn about Physical, Mental, and Systemic Violence

Currie, Elliott. (2020) A Peculiar Indifference: the Neglected Toll of Violence on Black America. Available in print

Violence takes more years of life from Black men than cancer, stroke, and diabetes combined; a young Black man in the United States has a fifteen times greater chance of dying from violence than his white counterpart. Black women suffer violent death at a higher rate than white men. While the country has been rightly outraged by the recent spate of police killings of Black Americans, the shocking amount of “everyday” violence that plagues them receives far less attention.

Curry, Lynne. (2016) Beating the Workplace Bully: A Tactical Guide to Taking Charge. Available in ebook

Whether the bully is a boss or a coworker, this empowering guide will help you recognize what has been causing you to become a victim, then reveals how to: Avoid typical bully traps, Remain aware and in charge, Move past your fear, Calm yourself in any confrontation, Keep your dignity intact, Handle sneak attacks, Combat cyberbullying.

Davidson, LTC (Ret) Michael J. (2020) "Hazing" and the Military: A Historical Review of Military Training Traditions. Naval Law Review. Available at

The military historically has struggled with defining “hazing” and providing comprehensible guidance to service members on permissible and impermissible conduct. Further, some military institutions, in the past, embraced conduct associated with new entrant training that currently is disfavored, despite objections from numerous graduates of the prior programs, who found merit with the now disfavored training techniques.

DiRosa, Gia A. (2014) Moving Away from Hazing: The Example of Military Initial Entry Training. AMA Journal of Ethics. Available at

While veterans can attest to the hardships and horrors of combat, historical accounts suggest that some of the most harrowing experiences for Soldiers took place in basic training. There is a long history of sanctioned abuse of new recruits by their drill instructors during initial entry training (i.e., “boot camp”) for the armed forces. Severe mistreatment on the part of instructors is recorded as early as the beginning of the twentieth century at the USMA and continued well into the modern era.

Farmer, Benjamin. (2016) Perceptions of Hazing and Bullying among U.S. Military Service Members. Available from DTIC at

Efforts to enhance the welfare of U.S. Military Service Members SMs have led to increased awareness of and attention to hazing and bullying behaviors perceived by SMs. Using the Defense Management Equal Opportunity Institute DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey DEOCS, perceptions of hazing and bullying among SMs of all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces except Coast Guard were explored. Findings of this study indicate SMs report perceptions of bullying at a substantially higher rate than hazing.

Keller, K. (2015). Hazing in the U.S. Armed Forces: Recommendations for Hazing Prevention Policy and Practice. RAND Corporation. Available at

 Initiation activities have long been part of U.S. military culture as a way to mark significant transitions, status changes, and group membership. However, along with these activities have often come acts of hazing, in which individuals are subjected to abusive and harmful treatment. In recent years, extreme cases of alleged hazing have led to high profi­le deaths of several service members, resulting in renewed interest from the public and Congress in seeing these hazing rituals eliminated from military culture.

Keller, Kirsten M. (2017) Hazing Prevention and Response: Training for Military Leaders. RAND Corporation. Available at

This instructor guide provides content from which instructors can draw when leading the Hazing Prevention and Response: Training for Military Leaders class. Through a series of PowerPoint slides and discussion topics addressing hazing in the U.S. military, the class is intended to assist military leaders (enlisted and officers) with hazing prevention and response efforts. The class is designed to be interactive and can be particularly useful as part of pre-command courses or during appropriate points in professional military education.

Krahe, Barbara. (2020) The Social Psychology of Aggression. Available in ebook

Understanding the causes, forms, and consequences of aggression and violence is critical for dealing with these harmful forms of social behavior. Also discussing strategies for reducing and preventing aggression, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in psychology and related disciplines, as well as practitioners and policy makers.

Parks, Gregory S. (2017) The Harms and Hazards of Hazing A Modern History. Coming soon in print

While hazing, undoubtedly, occurs across the spectrum of human culture, its current manifestation in the United States can be uniquely violent and dangerous. In addition to personal harm to aspiring members, hazing may result in a range of legal consequences ranging from criminal to civil sanctions against the organizations or individual members. In this work, major hazing incidents within high school and college athletics, fraternities/sororities, marching bands, and military are delineated.

Svec, Leedjia & McDonald, Daniel P. (2013) Hazing in the Military: A Pilot Study. Available from DTIC at

Hazing is an activity typically steeped in tradition, bound by silence, and ritualistic in nature. Hazing is thought to mark a transition, celebrate an achievement, or bring someone into a social or professional circle. However, hazing costs and sometimes kills. The cost of a hazing incident at the U.S. Air Force academy in 2012, for example, amounted to 14,062.50 worth of lost productivity in a single day for the 27 cadets involved. Hazing also kills. In 2012, one Army soldier took his own life in response to alleged hazing. Hazing kills organizations as well as individuals. In the case of the soldier, his entire unit was disbanded as the investigation took place and the Army received an onslaught of negative press. No service is immune to hazing, as all have experienced incidents and repercussions.